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Conference Papers Year : 2016

Layers of Shared and Cooperative Control, assistance and automation


Over the last centuries we have experienced scientific, technological and societal progress that enabled the creation of intelligent assisted and automated machines with increasing abilities, and require a conscious distribution of roles and control between humans and machines. Machines can be more than either fully automated or manually controlled, but can work together with the human on different levels of assistance and automation in a hopefully beneficial cooperation. One way of cooperation is that the automation and the human have a shared control over a situation, e.g. a vehicle in an environment. The objective of this paper is to provide a common meta model of shared and cooperative assistance and automation. The meta models based on insight from the H(orse)-methaphor (Flemisch et al, 2003; Goodrich et al., 2006) and Human-Machine Cooperation principles (Hoc and Lemoine, 1998; Pacaux-Lemoine and Debernard, 2002; Pacaux-Lemoine, 2014), are presented and combined in order to propose a framework and criteria to design safe, efficient, ecological and attractive systems. Cooperation is presented from different points of view such as levels of activity (operational, tactical and strategic levels) (Lemoine et al, 1996) as well as the type of function shared between Human and machine (information gathering, information analysis, decision selection, action implementation) (Parasuraman et al., 2000). Examples will be provided in the aviation domain (e.g. Goodrich et. al 2012) and the automotive domain with the automation of driving (Hoeger et al, 2008; Flemisch et al., 2016; Tricot et al., 2004; Pacaux-Lemoine et al, 2004; Pacaux-Lemoine et al., 2015).

Dates and versions

hal-03417223 , version 1 (05-11-2021)



Marie-Pierre Pacaux-Lemoine, Frank Flemisch. Layers of Shared and Cooperative Control, assistance and automation. 13th IFAC Symposium on Analysis, Design, and Evaluation ofHuman-Machine Systems HMS 2016, Aug 2016, Kyoto, Japan. pp.159-164, ⟨10.1016/j.ifacol.2016.10.479⟩. ⟨hal-03417223⟩
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